IP-10 (interferon-gamma induced protein 10 kD, CXCL10) is a protein that is produced by monocytes and macrophages as well as in small quantities by endothelial cells after contact with IFN-γ. Because IP-10 is exclusively induced by interferons and circulates in significantly higher concentrations in the blood than the interferons themselves, this chemokine is an ideal marker to determine the biological activity of IFN-γ and thus the T cellular or T-cell-induced immune activation.
The biological functions of IP-10 have not yet been fully determined. It stimulates monocytes and NK cells and induces T cells to migrate into the tissue. It also has a regulatory effect on T cell and precursor cell maturation in the bone marrow. It elevates the expression of various adhesion molecules on the endothelia and inhibits angiogenesis. IP-10 has no effect on neutrophil granulocytes, however.
As an induced protein, its release is not undulating and staged, unlike IFN-γ. It has a higher in vivo and ex vivo stability. Both of these aspects mean that normal levels of IP-10 can be measured (basal activation) even in healthy people and the known sensitivity gap for IFN-γ for blood concentration measurements in the lower range does not play a role.
Thanks to the specific IFN-γ-induction, however, direct inferences can be made about the IFN-γ history over the last 24 to 48 hours via IP-10.
2 ml whole blood for serum extraction
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